There are very few data on animal infections by Penicillium species, and the few cases reported have been restricted to systemic diseases and fungal osteomyelitis in dogs. Those species for which the sexual phase is known are placed in the Eurotiales. Found on foodstuffs, leather, and fabrics, they are of economic importance in the production of More data are needed from both in vitro susceptibility studies and clinical outcomes in order to determine an effective treatment for infections caused by penicillium-like fungi. In order to assess phylogenetic relationships, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference assessments were used. Some species are known to produce mycotoxins. While P. glabrum has not been associated with human infections, Chowdhary (32) reported three cases of invasive infections by P. oxalicum in patients with acute myeloid leukemia, diabetes mellitus, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. That means this species tends to induce a hypersensitive (allergic) reaction instead of infecting the body. The phylogenetic reconstruction by BI was performed using 5 million Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) generations, with two runs (one cold chain and three heated chains), and samples were stored every 1,000 generations. Infections caused by Penicillium spp. The results can provide much-needed information on the diversity of species in that part of the world. This work was supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (grant CGL2013-43789-P). It has long been known that some kinds of mâ¦ Causes of Aspergillus Penicillium on Walls and on Wood. However, one species, Talaromyces (formerly Penicillium) marneffei, is notable for its clinical relevance as an agent of fatal systemic mycosis, mostly in HIV-infected patients, and mainly in southeast Asia, India, and China (6). The results of growth at 37°C (Table 1) showed that 71.7% of the Penicillium isolates (n = 61) were able to grow at this temperature. High diversity of non-sporulating moulds in respiratory specimens of immunocompromised patients: should all the species be reported when diagnosing invasive aspergillosis? The food sector is very important. Treatment is with amphotericin B, followed by itraconazole to prevent relapse. Penicillin is one of the oldest broad spectrum antibiotics which is used to treat various types of bacterial infection. We carried out a phylogenetic study for each of the three genera involved. These blue-green molds grow rapidly in the mycology laboratory and produce fine septate hyphae with 1.5-5 um wide elements. Sample collection.A total of 118 isolates identified morphologically as a Penicillium spp. A nonproductive cough is frequently present. It was Penicillium mold that was responsible for saving many lives by producing the first known modern antibiotic known as penicillin. Additionally, within section Citrina, seven Penicillium sp. Single-band PCR products were purified and sequenced at Macrogen Corp. Europe 104 (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) with a 3730XL DNA analyzer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Some species such as Aspergillus penicillioides are xerophilic, which means they grow with only a small amount of moisture. Blood cultures are positive in over half of patients. In this genus, 10 species were identified belonging to four sections, i.e., Talaromyces (n = 25), Trachyspermi (n = 3), Islandici (n = 2), and Helici (n = 1). Because skin involvement occurs in nearly two-thirds of patients, skin lesions are usually present and are most commonly found on the face, upper trunk, and arms. This confirms the observations of Mok et al. (35) identified clinical isolates of R. eburnea from blood cultures, sputum, and peritoneal dialysis fluid from a patient with peritonitis. The diagnosis of invasive disease by Penicillium spp. Epidemiology of invasive respiratory disease caused by emerging non-, Role of opportunistic fungi in ocular infection in Nigeria, A case of cutaneous penicilliosis in a child with acute myeloid leukaemia, Fleming's penicillin producing strain is not, Case report: cutaneous penicilliosis due to, Taxonomy and antifungal susceptibility of clinically important, Emergence of disseminated infections due to, Submission, Review, & Publication Processes. In fact, ITC has been used as a prophylactic treatment for infections by T. marneffei (42). (32) reported resistance to VRC in three cases of invasive infections by P. oxalicum, where the successful alternative treatment was PSC. On the other hand, practically all isolates of the genus Talaromyces (99.6%; n = 29), as well as the two isolates of the genus Rasamsonia, grew at 37°C (Table 1). Penicillin is an antibiotic made from mold. (1) for Penicillium identification. It can be contaminated with a lot of components such as fungâ¦ In the present study, AMB also had intermediate antifungal activity, agreeing with previous studies (42, 43); however, the clinical experience reported in two cases of infections by species within this group revealed that the patients did not respond to this drug (8). Aspergillus penicillium is mainly allergenic. ASM journals are the most prominent publications in the field, delivering up-to-date and authoritative coverage of both basic and clinical microbiology. The disease also closely resembles histoplasmosis and cryptococcosis as it occurs in HIV-infected patients. Additionally, this study was designed to provide antifungal susceptibility data for the species identified, which will allow more-appropriate patient management of these infections. A total of 118 isolates thought to belong to the genus Penicillium based on morphological features were obtained from the Fungus Testing Laboratory at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio (United States). Phylogenetic reconstructions.Preliminary identification of the isolates to the genus level was performed by analysis of ITS sequences, using the BLAST algorithm implemented in the GenBank, CBS-KNAW, and MycoBank databases. The aligned data set was 919 bp long (ITS, 521 bp; β-tubulin, 398 bp), and Kimura's two-parameter (K2) model with gamma distribution (+G) was the model selected for each fragment. S3 in the supplemental material) was carried out to identify the Rasamsonia isolates. Penicilliosis is an infection caused by Penicillium marneffei, a dimorphic fungus endemic to Southeast Asia and the southern part of China. strain III (n = 1; section Talaromyces), Talaromyces sp. As expected, Penicillium species were the most common (72%). T. amestolkiae and T. purpurogenus were the species most frequent identified among our isolates. Terbinafine was chosen as a good alternative for long-term maintenance therapy for treatment of an infection associated with one isolate from a dog with osteomyelitis (11). is rare; occurs in immunosuppressed patients. American Society for Microbiology strain VI (n = 1; section Trachyspermi). Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common of the group, followed by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus brasiliensis (formerly termed niger). Isolates were identified to the species level using the ITS and β-tubulin sequences. P. piceum should be considered as a relevant pathogen in immunocompromised patients. Amphotericin B showed intermediate antifungal activity, with an overall mode of 2 μg/ml, while the azoles showed various levels of activity, with wide MIC ranges and modes of 0.5 μg/ml for PSC and ITC and 2 μg/ml for VRC. (27), who reported high MIC values for the azoles against one isolate of P. citrinum from an acute leukemia patient with pneumonia and pericarditis. This analysis showed that our isolates corresponded to 23 species belonging to the following 10 sections: Chrysogena (n = 28), Citrina (n = 17), Fasciculata (n = 11), Lanata-Divaricata (n = 11), Aspergilloides (n = 7), Exilicaulis (n = 4), Roquefortorum (n = 3), Brevicompacta (n = 2), Penicillium (n = 1), and Sclerotiora (n = 1). Apart from T. marneffei, which is the most clinically important member, this genus contains some opportunistic species of clinical importance such as T. amestolkiae, T. indigoticus, T. piceus, T. purpurogenus, T. radicus, T. ruber, T. rugulosus, T. stollii, and T. verruculosus. There is a marked predominance of male cases (~ 90%). A second phylogenetic reconstruction was performed to identify the Talaromyces isolates (see Fig. This species of Penicillium is associated with the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming in 1928. In patients with pulmonary involvement, the chest x-ray may show multiple infiltrates, abscesses, and cavitation. The potent in vitro activity of amphotericin B (AMB) and terbinafine (TRB) and of the echinocandins against Penicillium and Talaromyces species might offer a good therapeutic alternative for the treatment of infections caused by these fungi. Molecular identification was made using two genetic markers, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and a fragment of the β-tubulin gene. For microscopic observation, slides were made with Shear's solution using 7-to-10-day-old cultures. Susceptibility testing was performed to identify the Talaromyces isolates ( see Fig ordinary homes we can find Aspergillus and in... 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