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at 0017. The probability is that the 4-in magazines exploded first. Most details of the preamble to the final action are taken from, This abbreviation apparently refers to Admiral Holland, then in overall tactical command of. I have assumed in this computation that the. [31][35] Admiral Scheer,[31] with a design speed of 26 knots (48 km/h; 30 mph),[36] was too slow to operate with Tirpitz and was left in port,[31] as was the destroyer Paul Jakobi. There was a long wait while the horizon became gradually more distinct and at last at 0535 Bismarck and Prinz Eugen were sighted bearing 335 degrees on an approximate course of 240 degrees, range approximately 38,000 meters. . How much damage would they inflict before they are eventually taken out? . Although I have thus deleted this noun from the paper, readers should note that it is not entirely unknown. A writer to the Times of London, in a letter entitled "DESIGN OF THE HOOD NO MISCALCULATION -The Handicap of Age" stated the Hood had not been destroyed by a "lucky hit" but because ". E = 2.00 Rowell, navigating officer of Prince of Wales, saw three splashes and saw the fourth shell hit. Although as late as 1940, Jane's Fighting Ships was stating that ". The deck armor is also shown in the cross sectional view. "As it died down," he said, "I saw her two fore turrets fire and the thought 'they may be able to get it under,' came into my mind. A warhead could still, however, have been detonated or exploded by a direct hit from BISMARCK'S shell. . . The Bismarck and the Prinz Eugen, however, were located by British reconnaissance in the North Sea near Bergen, and an intensive hunt for them was immediately set in motion. The Prinz Eugen was an enormous warship named after the 18th century Austrian general, Prince Eugene of Savoy. The "blue pendant" refers to the signal flag that was used in association with other flags in order to transmit course change information. 'A,' 'B,' and 'Y' were firing at the time and I noticed that 'X' turret was not firing. [58] Repairs lasted until 2 April 1944; full speed trials were scheduled for the following day in Altafjord. the court questioned. "FIRE EFFECT TABLE - BLUE 14-in/50, 2577/6-31", Department of Operations, Naval War College, Newport, R.I., c. June 1935. 360-365. . A comprehensive if complex treatment of practical underwater ballistics is given in May, Albert, "Water Entry and the Cavity-Running Behavior of Missiles," Nav/Sea Hydroballistics Advisory Committee Technical Report 75-2, Silver Springs, Maryland, 1975, 450 pp. The usual tendency of an ogival headed projectile impacting the water at an angle of fall of about fourteen degrees would be to travel about eighty calibers submerged in an upwardly curving path, and to re-emerge once again with its velocity greatly diminished. . During the ensuing battle, the lighter armour of the battle cruiser Hood proved to be its downfall. knew a fair amount" about high explosive detonations, the court subjected him to a detailed examination. Gammel of. Yamato and Musashi's designers actually had planned a new solution to the problem of long range accuracy. 14 signaled to destroyers; "If you are unable to maintain this speed I will have to go on without you. went out." 6 X 15" guns that can penetrate Prinz Eugen's armor at ANY range. the boat deck appeared to raise in the middle [and] all what I term cordite fumes came from underneath the ship from aft and about abreast the after funnel," he testified. Third, it should be of such a nature as to have had a reasonable probability of actually taking place. In either case the trajectory of the projectile, its velocity, and its high obliquity would have rendered useful penetration to the area of the magazines highly unlikely.56 Even assuming the projectile were not rejected or deflected by Hood's deck armor, the fuze delay of the German projectiles would have probably detonated the shell before it could reach a magazine. . . . Pacelli wurde mit dem Revolver bedroht [6] und sein Dienstwagen beschlagnahmt, aber, nach etlichen … No one can know with certainty what they might find. Lawrence Sutton observed ". Walter Marshall, also on the Pom Pom deck, saw it as ". These huge ducts, changing in size and shape as they rose through the ship ended in roughly square vents 1.8 meters on a side on the boat deck. By this time, the ship needed a major overhaul. . This was the only feasible role for her, since the St Nazaire Raid had made operations against the Atlantic convoy lanes too risky. . Evidence was presented that his unit had failed to help the Kriegsmarine when requested. . He was apparently not recalled to testify before the second board. [48], The British were determined to neutralise Tirpitz and remove the threat she posed to the Allied arctic convoys. "24 "Could you say whether this shell penetrated the deck or not?" Three ships of the Austrian and later Austro-Hungarian Navy have been named SMS Prinz Eugen in honor of Prince Eugene of Savoy. For example, U.S. Navy specifications for the Base Detonating Fuze Mark 21 considered the fuze action satisfactory if the detonation occurred between 0.030 and 0.070 seconds after impact when set for a nominal 0.033 second delay. [34], In March 1942 Tirpitz and Admiral Scheer, along with the destroyers Z14 Friedrich Ihn, Z5 Paul Jakobi, Z7 Hermann Schoemann and Z25 and a pair of torpedo boats,[24] were intended to attack the homebound convoy QP 8 and the outbound Convoy PQ 12 as part of Unternehmen Sportpalast (Operation Sports Palace). . Heavy fog prevented any hits from being scored. He was, however, fairly certain that the resultant fire was of cordite. "28 All around the scene of the action, other observers recalled thinking exactly the same thing. T = 0.02 - (0.01 Log K) There is no direct evidence that such a hit occurred, but it may have done so on either side of the ship. . Assuming that the required deck penetrations reduced the projectile's average velocity to half of the plate exit velocity, a nominal fuze delay of 0.035 seconds corresponds to a travel of only eight meters at best, not enough to reliably reach a magazine.57 The German penetration diagrams are reproduced below. Reader mode. The noise ". Assuming that the angle of fall of Bismarck's shells was somewhere between 10.6° and 13.9° and that the target angle was 53°, when superimposed on a cross section of the Hood, this corresponds to a resolved angle of between 13.2° and 17.2°. [81], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}69°38′50″N 18°48′30″E / 69.64722°N 18.80833°E / 69.64722; 18.80833, Bismarck-class battleship of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine, Operations Planet, Brawn, Tiger Claw, Mascot and Goodwood. The bibliography reveals no reference to primary sources and - in the absence of further coorborative evidence - the author's conclusions might best be viewed somewhat skeptically. has raised the question of whether the above water torpedoes in 'HOOD' were responsible for the destruction of the ship. The "bang" of an explosion is caused by the creation of a supersonic shockwave, and is necessarily absent when burning occurs, even very rapid burning indeed. The color of the flag indicated the degree of change while the order of flags on the halyard indicated the direction. Two of the bombers were shot down by the German anti-aircraft defences. The battleship expended 54 rounds from her main guns, 161 from the 15 cm guns and up to 20 percent of her light anti-aircraft ammunition. Ten vessels were assigned to the operation, scheduled for 20–25 September 1943. seq. [19] British military intelligence, which was capable of decrypting the Enigma messages sent by the German navy, detected the departure of the vessel, but poor weather in Britain prevented action by the RAF. falling in all directions." British eyes watched from the cruisers many miles away. Had the final 20° turn been completed, the target angle would have been about 73°, and the consequent resolved obliquity only about 29°. [52] This was the first and only time the ship fired her main battery at an enemy surface target. . "88 A number of other witnesses confirmed Sutton's observations. a fire broke out abreast 'X' turret on 'Hood' [sic] port side," he said. . Other official figures83 give average four-gun pattern sizes for U.S. 14-in and 16-in [350mm and 406mm] guns as approximately 190 meters at our range of interest. was still burning when I shifted my periscope. [73] A force of 32 Lancasters from Nos. . [37] Tirpitz's anti-aircraft gunners shot down two of the British aircraft. The Prinz Eugen carried 8 small boats on board, and the Aeronaut kit had ready-made plastic models of each. . To give the ships an opportunity to work together, Admiral Karl Dönitz, who had replaced Raeder in the aftermath of the Battle of the Barents Sea on 31 December 1942, ordered an attack on Spitzbergen, which housed a British weather station and refuelling base. This article was first published in 1987. The investigators (probably incorrectly) concluded that the loss of the three battlecruisers was the result of propellant fires reaching the magazines rather than penetrations of deck or belt armor and thus changes to new designs and existing construction centered around improved anti-flash protection rather than the provision of additional armor. and First Sea Lord on 2 June, 1941, only nine days after the loss and only a week after Prince of Wales returned from Hvals Fjord.41 The report began: "This report contains Sergeant Terence Charles Brooks of the Royal Marines observed the scene through his periscope in P1 turret of Prince of Wales: "The second salvo from 'Bismarck' arrived and landed two on the starboard side and one inboard on the 4-in gun deck. "86 P.O. Taking this figure as the maximum range of Bismarck's guns would mean that Hood was at about 36% of maximum range when she exploded. [14] The Baltic Fleet, under the command of Vice Admiral Otto Ciliax,[13] patrolled off the Aaland Islands from 23 to 26 September 1941, after which the unit was disbanded and Tirpitz resumed training. [48] An assault force destroyed shore installations and captured 74 prisoners. . A caisson was built around the stern to allow the replacement of the ship's rudders. 1561 "Progress in Gunnery Materiel - 1920," ADM 186/244 X/LO 1045 pp.82 et. Computer simulations however, show that the 45° maximum range would have been in the immediate vicinity of 41,700 meters. . I might say egg-shaped." after full consideration of such points.". Brooks also testified "When the second hit was obtained on the 'Hood' the after funnel seemed to crumple over and fall away to the port-side and I saw a yellow flash come at the same time from the barbette of 'X' ". 217. seq. The flash rose to well above the mainmast of the ship and all I heard was a tremendous roar and I could not see anything until the smoke had cleared away. The story hit the papers the next day. Major Heinrich Ehrler, the commander of III./Jagdgeschwader 5 (3rd Group of the 5th Fighter Wing), was blamed for the Luftwaffe's failure to intercept the British bombers. Hood initially ". USS Prinz Eugen Ship of the Bikini atomic bomb tests of 1946 By M.W. Because of the additional retarding force, the equivalent distance under water would be much less - certainly less than 17 meters, and probably closer to 13 or 14. An effective underwater hit was relatively unlikely due to the c. 75 foot [23 meter] fuze delay required to reach the magazines. The large explosion, which was visibly similar to magazine explosions aboard World War I battlecruisers, was due to the explosion of the after magazines. The event occurred with remarkable suddenness, and was to most observers completely unexpected. Provided the fuze operated correctly, however, an underwater hit represents one of the most plausible explanations for the loss of the ship. . . On average, penetration via this route, especially by a damaged projectile, is therefore considered unlikely. Whitley [German Cruisers of World War II, U.S. Copy IP, Eternal Realms Cracked. The explosions were fairly small, he said, ". The fire was started on the port side of the boat deck of. Concussive shock caused severe damage to fire-control equipment. Nonetheless, perceived deficiencies in the design of Hood were considered serious enough to justify suspending work to allow a rather substantial redesign, including a reworked armor scheme and work was not resumed until 1 September. "20 Petty Officer Cyril Coates got the impression of ". Course was altered to 220 degrees at 0321 and to 240 degrees at 0342. Terence Brooks saw the fatal salvo arrive through the periscope of Prince of Wales' P.1 gun turret. . Numerous witnesses confirmed that Prince of Wales had to alter course to starboard to avoid wreckage of Hood as she steamed past. like the spire of a giant cathedral," a German observer would note - and within three minutes she was gone. . at 0012 and 000 degs. Sir Stanley Goodall, then Director of Naval Construction, held to a dissenting opinion, however: "If one or more shells from the 5th salvo burst in this devastated area [where fire was already burning], where there are eight torpedo heads, four each side, each containing about 500 lbs of TNT at the base of the mainmast, and if one or more of these warheads detonated, the result would be an explosion where it was actually observed. Projected upon the ship's cross sections, a projectile with an angle of fall of 10.6°-13.9° striking about 6 meters short could have penetrated the hull just below the 308mm belt and penetrated almost unimpeded directly to the area of the after magazines. seq.]. Vice Admiral Oskar Kummetz was given command of the warships stationed in Norway. There was a special organization for landing a number of 50 gallon drums which were kept on the boat deck adjacent to the sea' lifebuoy abreast the mainmast. She served with the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) during World War II. The defences of the anchorage were further strengthened; additional anti-aircraft guns were installed, and double anti-torpedo nets were laid around the vessel. 'Hood' had fired five or six salvos, but fall of shot was not seen, possibly because this coincided with firing of 'Prince of Wales' guns.". Although a hit from Prinz Eugen could possibly have caused the fire in Hood's after superstructure, it would have been almost impossible for such a hit to have penetrated to the after magazines.79 Prinz Eugen may have been able to hurt the Hood, but she would almost certainly be unable to kill her. . [73], The amidships hit caused significant flooding and quickly increased the port list to between 15 and 20 degrees. . An analysis of the track charts of the action indicates that at the fatal moment, assuming she had not begun the final turn, Hood's target angle would have been approximately 53°.52 For this angle, corresponding to a shot approaching from 37° forward of the beam, the resolved obliquity would have been approximately 43.85°.53 German armor penetration curves, redrawn below,54 indicate that at the predicted striking velocity of 530 meters per second, the penetration for an intact projectile into face-hardened armor would have been approximately 240mm. In viewing this figure, however, we must remember that the five salvos she fired included at least two and possibly three to find the range, and also that Hood and Prince of Wales were making rather frequent course changes during the action, so that her hit percentage in aimed, well-ranged fire would probably have been somewhat higher. turret. Several witnesses noticed - and chose to mention unusual events aboard Hood during the action. Graf Zeppelin is the only German aircraft carrier available in World of Warships until the release of Update 0.9.6. Unknown to the Germans, Admiral Tovey was providing distant support to the convoys with the battleship HMS King George V, the aircraft carrier HMS Victorious, the heavy cruiser HMS Berwick, and six destroyers. It was a narrow pillar," he recalled, ". The ships secretly exceeded the figure by a wide margin, though before either vessel was completed, the international treaty system had fallen apart following Japan's withdrawal in 1937, allowing signatories to invoke an "escalator clause" that permitted displacements as high as 45,000 long tons (46,000 t). To begin with, he is more than fifty years distant from the events of the 24th of May 1941. It would not have produced the very high column of flame of appreciable duration, which was seen by so many witnesses. . Named after Grand Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, the architect of the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy), the ship was laid down at the Kriegsmarinewerft Wilhelmshaven in November 1936 and her hull was launched two and a half years later. Roughly 15 ft long and 1 ft diameter" floating about him, evidently crushing tubes from the ship's side protection system. How he could be sure the last sound he heard was only gunfire, however, escapes me. But today, there is still more work that might be done. . . See, The footnote references and the explanatory material in square brackets have been added. would most probably break the ship's back and result in rapid foundering." The scattered vessels could no longer be protected by the convoy escorts, and the Germans sank 21 of the 34 isolated transports. Heavy projectiles by themselves were much less vulnerable. Even official track charts have proven inconsistent and unreliable. If something happened to it to cause it to become defective, it must have happened sometime between it being cleared and being built into the ship. A complete deck plan of, Tilburn's testimony is at ADM 116/4351 et. . ADM 116/4351 pp. Fire in 'Hood' spread rapidly to the mainmast. The Prinz Eugen was the last of the Kreigsmarine’s ultra-modern heavy cruisers and represented the pinnacle of German naval engineering. One author lists no fewer than thirty-seven safety interlocks controlling the operations of the 15-in Mk I. At least in the stern of the vessel, this drawing shows that the effective "draft" of the ship at any point along the side might range between 10.5 meters just forward of the mainmast to only 9.5 meters just forward of 'X' turret. ". No way could PE think about towing Bismarck anywhere. In ten minutes the list increased to 30 to 40 degrees, and the captain issued the order to abandon ship. This situation as well, R.N., began hearings in August of 1941, reproduced much! 4 ) Motion DL: https: // # f! 6TYDiYpR! Edit/Use... U.S. sources indicates that such a hit percentage of 0.235/3 = 0.078, or died in the bibliography consistent the. 20° it actually was a tremendous roar, mingled with the death toll from! Several witnesses noticed - and within three minutes she was moored next a... 15 August 1945, '' unpublished manuscript in the introduction, it should be of a... 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what happened to the prinz eugen