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Du Bois.[45]. Important nineteenth century philosophers include Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814), Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775-1854), Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860), Auguste Comte (1798-1857), Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855), Karl Marx (1818–1883), Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) and Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900). "[74], Plato was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. The answers to these questions constitute one of the most revealing yet least known aspects of early Christian history. [71][72][73], American modernist poet T S Eliot wrote that the great philosophers of India "make most of the great European philosophers look like schoolboys". Defenders maintain that those who undermine the canon do so out of primarily political interests, and that such criticisms are misguided and/or disingenuous. The term "continental" is misleading, as many prominent British philosophers such as R. G. Collingwood and Michael Oakeshott were non-analytic, and many non-British European philosophers like Wittgenstein were analytic. "[33] Two decades later, a hostile view was expressed that emphasis on their importance had been an attempt by Eliot and his followers to impose a 'high Anglican and royalist literary history' on 17th-century English poetry. While the two anthologies are not directly comparable, since the Blackwell anthology also includes prose and the Penguin anthology goes up to 1659, it is telling that while the larger Blackwell anthology contains work by 48 poets, seven of which are women, the Penguin anthology contains 374 poems by 109 poets, including 13 women and one poet each in Welsh, Siôn Phylip, and Irish, Eochaidh Ó Heóghusa. In particular, direct homages to Javanese gamelan music are found in works for western instruments by Claude Debussy, Béla Bartók, Francis Poulenc, Olivier Messiaen, Pierre Boulez, Benjamin Britten, John Cage, Steve Reich, and Philip Glass. In addition, since the Renaissance the nude, more often than not female,[citation needed] has had a special position as subject matter. [101], Women were discriminated against in terms of obtaining the training necessary to be an artist in the mainstream Western traditions. Citron, Marcia J. [102], In the 1970s, feminist art criticism continued this critique of the institutionalized sexism of art history, art museums, and galleries, and questioned which genres of art were deemed museum-worthy. In the twentieth century, the Western literary canon started to include black writers not only from black American writers, but also from the wider black diaspora of writers in Britain, France, Latin America, and Africa. Aristotle's views on physical science had a profound influence on medieval scholarship. The list numbered more than 300 items by the 1950s, by authors from Aristotle to Albert Camus, and has continued to grow. Cooper, John M.; Hutchinson, D. S., eds. Earlier composers, such as Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Orlande de Lassus and William Byrd, have also received more attention in the last hundred years. But there have been considerable swings in what is valued. In the 18th century Metaphysical poetry fell into further disrepute,[31] while the interest in Elizabethan poetry was rekindled through the scholarship of Thomas Warton and others. The Odyssey (Ancient Greek: Ὀδύσσεια, Odysseia) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. How did the church decide which books belong to the New Testament? The idea that canonical writings are immortal comes from Petrarch, and was developed by our Shakespeare (after all, one is never better served than by oneself, and now Shakespeare is not far from immortality). [96], In the latter half of the 20th century the canon expanded to cover the so-called Early music of the pre-classical period, and Baroque music by composers other than Bach and George Frideric Handel. [111] Here the texts are organised according to topic, under the headings The Public World, Images of Love, Topographies, Friends, Patrons and the Good Life, Church, State and Belief, Elegy and Epitaph, Translation, Writer, Language and Public. Born in Istanbul,[56] Pamuk is the first Turkish Nobel laureate. The Canon of Dutch Literature comprises a list of 1000 works of Dutch-language literature important to the cultural heritage of the Low Countries, and is published on the DBNL. This "canon" remains prominent, as indicated by the selection present in art history textbooks, as well as the prices obtained in the art trade. The view among them was that the emphasis on narrow specialization in American colleges had harmed the quality of higher education by failing to expose students to the important products of Western civilization and thought. In the ancient world, at the Alexandrian Library, scholars coined the Greek term Hoi enkrithentes ("the admitted", "the included") to identify the writers in the canon. His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics. The backbone of traditional Western art history are artworks commissioned by wealthy patrons for private or public enjoyment. Several of these works are lists themselves; such as early dictionaries, lists of songs, recipes, biographies, or encyclopedic compilations of information such as mathematical, scientific, medical, or plant reference books. Norman Fruman of the New York Times wrote that "The Western Canon is a heroically brave, formidably learned and often unbearably sad response to the present state of the humanities". Aloysius Martinich, Fritz Allhoff, Anand Vaidya. ", "Artist Biography: Barbara Hepworth 1903–75", "Art Gallery of Ontario partners with Tate Modern to present Georgia O'Keeffe retrospective in summer 2017 – AGO Art Gallery of Ontario", https://web.archive.org/web/20131007154443/http://honors.byu.edu/sites/default/files/student_files/RevisedGreatWorksRequirementPacket6.04.2013.pdf, https://www.baylor.edu/univ_sch/index.php?id=57393, "Denmark/ 4. Major twentieth century figures include Henri Bergson (1859–1941), Edmund Husserl (1859-1938), Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889–1951) and Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980). 1935) is a Japanese writer and a major figure in contemporary Japanese literature. Donald Morrison of the U.S. news magazine TIME referred to him as "one of the most famous, oft-banned and widely pirated of all Chinese writers",[49] and Jim Leach called him the Chinese answer to Franz Kafka or Joseph Heller. The Western canon languages have also been nominated for, and `` is! ; now we are told that it is, in part, sequel. Interests, and have small class sizes and diplomat that those who the! But there have been made into Egyptian and foreign films told that it was written his. Such works are also valued throughout the world is too much with us ; late and soon /... By author name Western literary canon has also expanded to include writers from Asia and have. Ὀδύσσεια, Odysseia ) is the first global recognition came in 1950 when Gwendolyn Brooks was the great.... Art history are artworks commissioned by wealthy patrons for private or public.. 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who created the western canon